What is Insulin?
Insulin is a polypeptide-structured chemical that, together with the glucagon hormone in the body, plays a role in the absorption of carbohydrates. The inclusion of insulin hormone in this way to carbohydrate metabolism and its regulatory effect on blood sugar show differences from person to person. The insulin hormone, a blood sugar-lowering hormone, is secreted by the pancreas and its name derives from the word "Langerhans islets" found in the pancreas tissues and emerges from the word "insula" meaning "island".
The structure of the insulin hormone varies according to the small differences among animals, and the most similar structure to the insulin structure in the human body is the insulin structure in the pig’s body, with a single amino acid unit being different.
Insulin, whose main task in the body is to provide carbohydrate absorption, is also influential on fat and protein metabolisms, which are linked to carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin, which is effective in the use and balancing of the body of glucose, which is the fuel of the cells and therefore of the cells, is in fact vital. As a result, a number of health problems can arise depending on the absence and excess of insulin in the body. In this direction, the absence of the insulin hormone that occurs in the body leads to diabetes mellitus 1, ie, high diabetes mellitus, relatively low levels of insulin hormone in the body, or insulin resistance.
Relationship Between Insulin and Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the fact that the cells of the fat tissue and the skeletal muscles can not produce the appropriate hormone, insulin hormone, which allows the neighboring glucose to absorb. When the blood sugar level rises too much, there may be more serious health problems like kidney failure, heart problems and vision problems as well as problems such as increased feeling of hunger and thirst, need for frequent urination. Approximately 10% of the world’s diabetics suffer from type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is observed in 90% of diabetics worldwide. This type of diabetes is usually observed in adults and elderly people. Type 2 diabetes is not a metabolic disease, with a consequence of life-style mistakes. That is, when a person is born, it is not born with this disease, it develops later. This type of diabetes is the result of the body not being able to appropriately use insulin produced by the pancreas. Symptoms and symptoms also resemble type 1 diabetes.
Regulation of Blood Sugar
During digestion, the body breaks up the carbohydrates taken from the food and breaks it down to the smallest component, the glycoside, that brings the carbohydrate to the plant. Food such as bread, rice, pasta, vegetables, fruit and dairy products is rich in carbohydrates. Glucose, a kind of sugar molecule, is the main energy source of the body. After eating, glucose is absorbed in the bloodstream, but in this state most parts can not enter the tissue cell. Glucose is the hormone that makes it possible to enter the cells, and this hormone is produced by the pancreas. When the relative glucose level increases, the beta cells in the pancreas at the back of the mint send out signals, recognizing that insulin must be produced. When insulin production begins, the cells become receptive to glucose, the energy source. Thus, the cells will be able to provide energy to function properly. If there is an extra extra glucose, they are also stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. This entire process prevents dangerous levels of glucose in the bloodstream from rising.
If a person does not eat for a few hours, the blood sugar will start to fall. In this case, another hormone secreted by the pancreas will enter the glucagon. This hormone sends a signal to the liver to break down the glycans stored in the liver. The liver, which takes the signal, breaks down the glycogens and reveals glucose. These glycosides, which are building blocks of glycogen and which are released, enter the bloodstream. This ensures that the blood sugar is kept at normal levels until the meal is eaten again.
Insulin Level on the Side
The insulin hormone is produced by the pancreas. When food is eaten, blood sugar is increasing and insulin is produced. Here, insulin helps to remove glucose in the body and is then stored for use as a fuel. If it were not for insulin, the blood sugar level would remain high and this would be a danger. When the body constantly produces insulin hormone, the amount of sugar in the blood will decrease and the insulin resistance will come into play. This increases the risk of developing diabetes 2.
Glycemic Index and Insulin
The glycemic index is a scale that measures the level at which certain foods increase blood sugar and is obtained by the amount of carbohydrates contained in foods, and the distortion of their glycemic load. The glycemic index and glycemic load of foods determine how high the level of insulin is. Foods with high glycemic index and glycemic load values increase secretion of the insulin hormone and low values trigger less insulin response.
Insulin Containing Nutrients
In fact, it is not the case that foods contain insulin hormones. But some foods can increase the secretion of insulin hormone in the body. Here are some of the foods that trigger or regulate the secretion of insulin hormone in this way;
1. Refined Grains:
White flour, white rice and degermed corn flour are obtained from refined grains. Such refined grains have high glycemic values and increase insulin hormone production. Nutrients such as bread, couscous and pasta are some of the refined grains.
2. Sugar Fruits:
Naturally occurring foods containing sugar or added sugar later increase insulin hormone secretion. All foods, including sucrose, maltose, and dextrose (grape sugar), contain any of the same types of sugars as well as glucose. When such foods are consumed, the level of glucose in the blood increases and thus the substance required for the production of the insulin hormone is also provided. The amount of insulin hormone is directly related to the level of blood sugar, and therefore, foods that are rich in glucose also increase the level of insulin. Non-alcoholic beverages such as soda and sports drinks increase the production of insulin hormone because it contains baked goods, cakes, some breakfast cereals, refined grains as well as fortified sugars.
3. Starchy Vegetables:
Starchy vegetables increase the level of insulin hormone because starch is composed of one sugar chain. Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn and wild boar, increase insulin hormone production. On the other hand, vegetables such as sweet potatoes, carrots and beets are low glycemic starchy vegetables and help to avoid excessive insulin hormone production.
Beans with high fiber content are important in regulating glucose absorption. According to research done, beans like beans also help to reduce paralysis risk. Beans that regulate insulin secretion in the body have positive effects on diabetes.
5. Bitter Chocolate:
Bitter, a black and unsweetened chocolate type, rather than milk and sugar chocolate, contributes to the neutralization of the level of sugar on the side thanks to the caffeine in its content. Because caffeine is a natural stimulus, it helps stimulate bile secretion and insulin, thus balancing the level of sugar in the blood.
6. Other nutrients that increase insulin production:
According to the Harvard School of Public Health, foods with a glycemic load rating of 20 and above are considered high-glycemic-loaded foods. French fries, baked potatoes, cranberry juice cocktails, white flour pasta, white rice, sugar bars, sugar-flavored drinks, jellies and refined breakfast cereals are examples of such high glycemic supplements. Brown rice, some fruit juices without sugar addition, oatmeal, polished barley, and whole-grain bread, which have moderate glycemic load (11 to 19), also increase insulin hormone production.